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  Church History Timeline
 970 - 931 B.C. - Solomon reigned as the the final king before the Northern Kingdom of Israel and the Southern Kingdom of Judah split.
 957 B.C. - Solomon's Temple completed in 957 BC. (reigned c. 970-c. 930 B.C.).
 772 B.C. - Northern Kingdom of Israel under Rehoboam, son of Solomon, exiled to Assyria
 597 B.C. - Southern Kingdom of Judah, under Jeroboam, son of Solomon, exiled to Babylon.
 587/586 B.C. (August) - Solomon's Temple demolished (The First Temple).The Babylonian army laid siege to Jerusalem in January 587 BC, and after eighteen months, breached the wall (in July 586 BC). The demolition of the temple commenced the next month, August 586 BC ("In the fifth month, on the seventh day of the month, which was the nineteenth year of King Nebuchadnezzar, King of Babylon," 2 Kings 25:8).
 560 B.C. - 560-480 B.C. - Buddha. Entombed.
 551 B.C. - 551-479 B.C. - Confucius. Entombed.
 515 B.C. (March 12) - Construction of the Second Temple was authorized by Cyrus the Great and began in 538 BC, after the fall of the Babylonian Empire the year before. It was completed 23 years later, on the third day of Adar, in the sixth year of the reign of Darius the Great (12 March 515 BC), dedicated by the Jewish governor Zerubbabel.
 323 B.C. (June 13) - Death of Alexander The Great.
 167 B.C. 2nd Temple desecrated by Antiochus IV Epiphanes, who had a pig sacrificed on the altar.
 164 B.C. The temple was rededicated under Judas Maccabaeus.
 20 B.C. The 2nd Temple was renovated by Herod the Great, and became known as Herod's Temple.
 4 B.C/28 A.D. - John the Baptist. Beheaded on August 29, 28 A.D. by Herod Antipas at the request of his stepdaughter, Salome. John son of Zachariah (a temple priest) and Elizabeth, was 2nd-cousin to Jesus. Elizabeth and Mary were cousins. John baptised Jesus.
 4 B.C. - Birth of Jesus Christ. Tomb empty.
 17-80 A.D. - Timothy died in Ephesus. According to later tradition, Paul consecrated Timothy as bishop of Ephesus in the year 65, where he served for 15 years. In the year 80 (though some sources place the event during the year 97, with Timothy dying at age 80), Timothy tried to halt a pagan procession of idols, ceremonies, and songs. In response to his preaching of the gospel, the angry pagans beat him, dragged him through the streets, and stoned him to death.
 33 - Jesus Death, burial, and resurrection.
 35-107 - Ignatius of Antioch. One of the Apostolic Fathers, was the third Bishop and Patriarch of Antioch, and along with friend Polycarp, was a student of John the Apostle. Ignatius was sentenced to die and martyred in the Colosseum (Flavian Amphitheatre) during the reign of Emperor Trajan, in Rome, eaten by lions. Ignatius also called himself Theophorus ("God Bearer"), and tradition says he was one of the children Jesus took in His arms and blessed. Ignatius is claimed to be the first known Christian writer to argue in favor of Christianity's replacement of the Sabbath with the Lord's Day: “Be not seduced by strange doctrines nor by antiquated fables, which are profitless. For if even unto this day we live after the manner of Judaism, we avow that we have not received grace. If then those who had walked in ancient practices attained unto newness of hope, no longer observing Sabbaths but fashioning their lives after The Lord's Day, on which our life also arose through Him and through His death which some men deny, how shall we be able to live apart from Him? It is monstrous to talk of Jesus Christ and to practise Judaism. For Christianity did not believe in Judaism, but Judaism in Christianity." — Ignatius to the Magnesians 8:1, 9:1-2, 10:3. He is also responsible for the first known use of the Greek word katholikos, meaning "universal," "complete" and "whole" to describe the church, writing: “Wherever the bishop appears, there let the people be; as wherever Jesus Christ is, there is the catholic Church. It is not lawful to baptize or give communion without the consent of the bishop. On the other hand, whatever has his approval is pleasing to God. Thus, whatever is done will be safe and valid." — Letter to the Smyrnaeans 8. It is from the word katholikos that the word "catholic" comes. When Ignatius wrote the Letter to the Smyrnaeans in about the year 107 and used the word "catholic", he used it as if it were a word already in use to describe the Church. This has led many scholars to conclude that the appellation "catholic Church" with its ecclesial connotation may have been in use as early as the last quarter of the first century. died 107 a.d. Christian martyr and apologist against heresy. Ignatius was condemned under Roman emperor Trajan to be devoured by wild beasts in Rome. First Christian writer to use the term "catholic church" as a collective term for the faithful.) source:
 37-100 - Josephus. Jewish Pharisee and Jewish Historian during the Apostolic era. Credited as recording some of the earliest history of Jesus Christ outside of the gospels. As a young man in his early twenties, Josephus negotiated with Emperor Nero for the release of several Jewish priests. He fought the Romans in the First Jewish-Roman War of 66–73 as a Jewish military leader in Galilee. After the Jewish garrison of Yodfat fell under siege, the Romans invaded, killing thousands; the survivors committed suicide. According to Josephus, however, in circumstances that are somewhat unclear, Josephus found himself trapped in a cave with forty of his companions. The Romans asked him to surrender once they discovered where he was, but his companions refused to allow this. He therefore suggested a method of collective suicide: they draw lots and kill each other, one by one, counting to every third person. The sole survivor of this process was Josephus. Josephus and one of his soldiers then surrendered to the Roman forces invading Galilee in July 67, and became prisoners. The Roman forces were led by Flavius Vespasian and his son Titus, both subsequently Roman emperors. In 69, Josephus was released and according to Josephus's own account, he appears to have played a role as a negotiator with the defenders during the Siege of Jerusalem in 70. In addition to being granted Roman citizenship he was granted accommodation in conquered Judaea, and a decent, if not extravagant, pension. It was while in Rome, and under Flavian patronage, that Josephus wrote all of his known works. Although he only ever calls himself "Josephus", he appears to have taken the Roman praenomen Titus and nomen Flavius from his patrons. This was standard practice for 'new' Roman citizens. Josephus's life is beset with ambiguity. For his critics, he never satisfactorily explained his actions during the Jewish war — why he failed to commit suicide in Galilee in 67 with some of his compatriots, and why, after his capture, he accepted patronage from the Romans.
 44 - James The Great. Son of Zebedee, James the Great was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus. He was a son of Zebedee and Salome, and brother of John the Apostle. He is also called James the Greater to distinguish him from James, son of Alphaeus, who is also known as James the Less. James is described as one of the first disciples to join Jesus. The Synoptic Gospels state that James and John were with their father by the seashore when Jesus called them to follow him, (Matt. 4:21-22, Mk. 1:19-20.) James was one of only three apostles whom Jesus selected to bear witness to his Transfiguration. The Acts of the Apostles records that Herod Agrippa I, King of the Jews, had James executed by sword in A.D. 44.
 50 - The Jerusalem Council (See Acts 15).
 56-117 - Cornelius Tacitus. Roman historian.
 60 - Matthew, the tax collector and writer of the Book of Matthew. Born in Nazareth. He wrote his gospel in Hebrew, which was afterwards translated into Greek by James the Less, the Lord's brother. Matthew was martyred with a sword in the city of Nadabah, Ethiopia, in A.D. 60. An older tradition holds that he was not martyred.
 61 - Barnabas. Named an Apostle in Acts 14. Stoned to death by Jews that were highly exasperated at his extraordinary success.
 62 - James the Just, also known as James Adelphotheos (the Brother of the Lord), James the Less, and James the Just, because of his righteousness and piety. James, as the leader of the Jerusalem Church in the decades after Jesus' resurrection, was stoned to death in 62 A.D. by scribes and Pharisees, who had asked James to dispel the rumor that Jesus was The Christ. In their dismay James boldly testified that Christ "Himself sitteth in heaven, at the right hand of the Great Power, and shall come on the clouds of heaven." Author of The Epistle of James. The first of the Seventy Apostles, and the author of the Apostolic Decree of Acts 15. Several early sources described him as the brother of Jesus; historians have variously interpreted this description as perhaps meaning a brother in a spiritual sense, or more literally as meaning that James was a close family relative of Jesus', perhaps his full brother, half or step-brother, a cousin, or some other relation. The oldest surviving Christian liturgy, the Liturgy of St James, called him "the brother of God" (Adelphotheos).
 63 - Mark. Author of The Gospel of Mark. Also known as John Mark (cousin of Barnabas). Founder of The Church of Alexandria. Martyred in the 8th year of Nero. Mark was dragged to pieces by the people of Alexandria at the great solemnity of Sarapis, their idol.
 64 A.D. - Main Christian persecutions began under Caesar Nero.
 65 - Jude. (Thaddaeus) One of Jesus original 12 Apostles. Jude and Simon the Zealot suffered martyrdom at Suanis, a city of Persia, where they had labored as missionaries. Jude was beaten to death with a club. His head was then severed from his body with an ax. His body was brought to Rome and his relics are now venerated in Saint Peter’s Basilica. Opinion is divided on whether Jude the apostle is the same as Jude, brother of Jesus, who is mentioned in Mark 6:3, and Matthew 13:55-57, and is the traditional author of the Epistle of Jude. Otherwise Juse was the Son of Cleophas, who died a martyr, and Mary who stood at the foot of the Cross, and who annointed Christ’s body after death. Brother of Saint James the Less. Nephew of Mary and Joseph; blood relative of Jesus Christ, and reported to look a lot like him. May have been a fisherman. Some Catholics believe the two Judes are the same person, while Protestants do not.
 67 - Peter was crucified in Rome under Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus.
 67 - Paul was beheaded with a sword near Rome, possibly on this day, June 29, 67. Other tradition is not clear.
 68 - June 9, 68 a.d. Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus, died after committing suicide.
 69-155 - Polycarp, disciple of the Apostle John. Apostolic Father and bishop at Smyrna. Polycarp was martyred, burned at the stake, then stabbed at Smyrna, at the age of 86, for refusing to burn incense to the Roman Emperor, according to Christian martyr and theologian Irenaeus, who was his pupil. But when the Pro-Consul pressed him and said: "Take the oath and I let you go, revile Christ," Polycarp said: "For eighty and six years have I been his servant, and he has done me no wrong, and how can I blaspheme my King who saved me?"
 70 - Roman General Titus encircled and began the siege of Jerusalem in April, A.D. 70. The Temple was destroyed on August 30, 70 a.d., the very same day of its destruction by the King of Babylon.
 72 A.D.- Thomas. One of the 12 Apostles of Jesus. Died Dec. 21, 72 A.D. Martyred with a sword in Coromandel, India.
 80 - Philip. The Apostle Philip arrived in the city of Phrygian Hieropolis, where there were many pagan temples. There was also a pagan temple where people worshiped an enormous serpent as a god. The Apostle Philip by the power of prayer killed the serpent and healed many bitten by snakes. Among those healed was the wife of the city governor, Amphipatos. Having learned that his wife had accepted Christianity, the governor Amphipatos gave orders to arrest Philip, his sister, and the Apostle Bartholomew travelling with them. At the urging of the pagan priests of the temple of the serpent, Amphipatos ordered the Apostles Philip and Bartholomew to be crucified in AD 54.
 1st Century - Bartholomew. One of the 12 Apostles. Martyred in Albanopolis in Armenia. He was flayed alive and crucified, head downward. He is said to have converted Polymius, the king of Armenia, to Christianity. Astyages, Polybius' brother, consequently ordered Bartholemew's execution.
 1st Century - Andrew. Brother of The Apostle Peter, the first 2 apostles chosen by Jesus. Was crucified on a cross at Edessa, where he preached to his persecuted until he died. Requesting not to be killed on the same type of cross like Jesus, because he was unworhty, Andrew was instead nailed to what is called the "saltire cross" or the "Decussate Cross" at the time. This cross that was in the shape of an 'X', and was a Roman cross that represents the number ten. This cross was later named "Saint Andrew's Cross", and was was widely used for martyrs during the medieval times.
 80 - Matthias. Was selected as an Apostle to replace Judas Iscariot. Stoned to death by Jews at Jerusalem, then beheaded. Other traditions say he accompanied Andrew to Syria, and was burned to death.
 84 - Luke. Hung on the branch of an olive-tree by idolatrous priests.
 100-165 - Justin Martyr. One of the earliest Christian apologist for Christianity. Opened a school of Christian philosophy at Rome where he was later martyred under Prefect Rusticus by beheading, after refusing to obey the Emperor Emperor Marcus Aurelius to sacrifice to the Roman Gods.
 107 A.D. - Simon the Zealot (Luke 6:15, Acts 1:13) ministered in Persia and was killed after refusing to sacrifice to the sun god. Other tradition claims martyrdom of different types, and one tradition claims he died peacefully.
 120 - The Apostle John dies and is buried in Ephesus.
 140-202 - Irenaeus. Early Church Father. Was converted under Polycarp, Polycarp a disciple of John The Apostle.
 150-203 - Clement of Alexandria. Greek theologian, Christian convert, early Church Father, and teacher of Origen.
 160-220 - Tertullian. Roman Catholic theologian converted 197 a.d. Left Catholicism in 213, because of the complacency in the church, joining the charismatic Montanist sect. Tertullian was the first theologian to use the terms "Persons" and "substance" in referring to the "who" and "what" of God within the Godhead. Tertullian in 215 A.D. was the first theologian to state the doctrine of The Trinity, using the Latin term, Trinitas (Trinity), referring to the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.
 180 - Theophilus of Antioch around 180 A.D. first used the Greek term trias (a set of three) in reference to God, his Word, and his Wisdom. However, Tertullian in 215 A.D. was the first one to state this doctrine using the Latin term, Trinitas (Trinity), referring to the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.
 185-254 - Origen (Origines Adamantius). Christian philosopher, pupil of Clement of Alexandria-taught in Alexandria for 28 years.
 200 - Gnostic gospels written (double predestinationism).
 202, March 7, Perpetua and Felicitas in the Carthage Arena - Before her trial, Perpetua received visions from the Lord, reassuring her of his strength and presence. She wrote up her prison experience, becoming the first Christian authoress on record. She was condemned to die. On this day, March 7, 202, Perpetua and Felicitas left the prison for the arena "joyfully as though they were on their way to heaven." Before a raging crowd, they were thrown to wild beasts. A mad heifer charged the women and tossed them, but Perpetua rose and helped Felicitas to her feet. She was ready, even eager, to die for the Lord. When she was thrown to the ground, Perpetua's clothing ripped. She modestly covered herself and asked if she could have a hairpin. She fixed her hair to avoid an unkempt appearance that might suggest she was in mourning. Perpetua even spurred the other martyrs on. "You must all stand fast in the faith and love one another," she called to them. "Do not be weakened by what we have gone through!" When the beasts failed to finish them off, soldiers came to do the job. The soldier who approached Perpetua was trembling so much that she had to guide the sword to her own throat.
 256-336 - Arius. Alexandrian priest who taught the heresy that Jesus was a supernatural being, not quite human, not quite divine, and who was created by God. Arianism was condemned at the first council of Nicea (325). The conflict continued as several bishops and emperors sided with Arius. The Catholic tenets of Rome and Athanasius finally triumphed, and the first council of Constantinople (381) upheld the decrees of Nicea. Athanasius' formulated the "homoousian" doctrine (from scripture), according to which the Son of God is of the same essence, or substance, as the Father.
 260-340 - Eusebius of Caesarea. Third century historian. Leader of the semi-Arians. Eusebius held that the nature of the Father, and the nature of Jesus Christ, were of similiar substance rather than the same substance. At the council of Nicea in 325 he accepted the Athanasian position, but leaned toward Arianism at the Synod's of Antioch (324), and Tyre (335).
 269, February 14 A.D. - St. Valentine. Tradition holds he was tortured, beaten with clubs, then beheaded, for his faith in Rome. Aided Christians who were chosen for martyrdom, though he was not a believer. During this time, Valentine became a believer.
 272-337, Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus, better known as Constantine the Great. Served as Roman Emperor from 306 to 337.
 293-373 - Athanasius - Given the epithet "Father of Orthodoxy." Christian theologian who championed the cause for orthodoxy in the 4th-century struggle against Arianism. At the Council of Nicea in 325, Athanasius opposed Arius, the Alexandrian priest, who advanced the doctrine of Arianism which maintained that the Son was of a different substance from that of the Father and was merely a creature, much more perfect than any other creature, who was used by God in subsequent works of creation. Tradition holds that 318 Bishops attended the council where Arianism was condemned and the Trinity was completely codified in the creeds. Athanasius formulated the "homoousian" doctrine, according to which the Son of God is of the same essence, or substance, as the Father. Arianism continued its attempt to alter Christian doctrine, but the Catholic tenets of Rome, and Athanasius finally triumphed for good as the First Council of Constantinople (a.d. 381) upheld the decrees of Nicea. The author of the Athanasius Creed is unknown but was named for Athanasius because it codifies the orthodox beliefs of Athanasius and the early Church, and their work done at the First Council of Nicea.
 300 - Prayers for the dead and 'sign of the cross' brought into the church at Rome.
 303 A.D., February 23 - "The 2nd Great Persecution," began under Emperor Diocletian. Galerius, the empire's second-in-command, was behind this persecution policy and continued it after Diocletian's death. For eight long years, official decrees ordered Christians out of public office, scriptures confiscated, church buildings destroyed, leaders arrested, and pagan sacrifices required. All the reliable methods of torture were mercilessly employed - wild beasts, burning, stabbing, crucifixion, the rack. But they were all to no avail. The penetration of the faith across the empire was so pervasive that the church could not be intimidated nor destroyed. In 311, the same Galerius, shortly before his death, weak and diseased, issued an "edict of toleration." This included the statement that it was the duty of Christians "to pray to their god for our good estate."
 313 - Following a series of civil wars, Constantine re-united the Western Roman Empire and the Eastern Roman Empire, and made Christianity the legal religion in 313 through the Edict of Milan.
 325 - The Council of Nicea, St. Nicholas, Athanasius, Eusebius, Arius.
 336 - December 25 - The 1st Recorded Celebration of Christmas.
 340-397 - Ambrose. Bishop of Milan from 374 to 397. Church Father and Doctor of the Church, and fitly chosen, together with Augustine, John Chrysostom, and Athanasius. Close friend with Augustine's mother.
 345 A.D., December 6, St. Nicholas - As bishop of Myra, Nicholas resisted tyrants and taught truth, especially rejecting the Arian heresy. His people loved him. "The doors of his house were open to all. He was kind and affable to all, to orphans he was a father, to the poor a merciful giver, to the weeping a comforter, to the wronged a helper, and to all a great benefactor." He brought down a local temple of the goddess Diana, confronted unjust rulers, defended individuals who were falsely accused and prayed for relief during famine. Nicholas attended the Council of Nicea, where he was almost stripped of his office because, frustrated with the claims of Arius against Christ, he slapped him. He was required to apologize. After a short illness, Nicholas died on December 6, 343.
 347-419 - Jerome. Biblical scholar. Produced the Latin Vulgate Bible.
 354-430 - Augustine. Named 'The Father of Theology. Augustine was Bishop of Hippo near modern Algeria. Church Father and one of the 8 doctors of the church. Famous quote used today in apologetics: " In essentials unity, in non-essentials liberty, and in all things charity". Augustine, one of the only early apologists to consider the apocrypha as scripture, ultimately admitted that the apocrypha had secondary status to the rest of the old testament. Baptised in 387a.d. Popularized the phrase "His-story" describing God's sovereignty in the affairs of men throughout history. This was also a part of Augustine's Theisic mindset which harmonizes with Calvin, Anselm, Aquinas and Geisler.
 363 A.D. The Council of Laodicea accepted all of the books of the New Testament except the Book of Revelation.
 375 - Veneration and praying to angels, Mary, and dead saints, and use of images brought into the church at Rome.
 381 - The First Council of Constantinople.
 390 - Jovinians teach celibacy is no better than being married, a person baptized with the Spirit as well as with water cannot sin; all sins are equal; and denied the perpetual virginity of Mary.
 394 - Roman daily mass (current form) started.
 395 - Vigilantians condemned the veneration of images and relics, invocation of the Saints, celibacy of the clergy; and monasticism: and held it useless to pray for the dead.
 397 A.D. The Council of Carthage chaired by the preeminent early church father and theologian, Augustine. The Council of Carthage accepted all 27 New Testament books.
 401 - Starting in 401, with the fifth Council of Carthage, the churches under the rule of Rome began teaching and practicing infant baptism.
 419 A.D. The Council of Hippo reaffirmed the Council of Carthage in accepting accepted all 27 New Testament books.
 431 A.D., June 22 - Council of Ephesus. The purpose of this council was to emphasize the union of Christ's two natures. The Orthodox belief that was ironed out was that the human and divine natures of Christ, were united from the instant of Jesus's conception in the womb of Mary. In theology this is known as "hypostatic union". The word "subsistence" is a synonym as well, describing how the two natures of Christ are synergized within the One Person of Christ.
 451 A.D., Oct. - 1st Meeting of the Council of Chalcedon
 487 - New Year's Day became a holy day in the Christian church.
 538 - Rise of the Roman Papacy.
 553 A.D., May 5 - 2nd Council of Constantinople
 570-632 - Muhammad. Birth of Islam, 600 a.d.
 593 - Doctrine of purgatory introduced by Pope Gregory I.
 600 - Prayers to the Virgin, Queen of Heaven.
 610 - Title of "pope", or universal bishop, was first given to Boniface III by emperor Phocas.
 632 - Death of Mohammed. Lived from 570 to 632 a.d.
 649 - Pope Martin I declares the “Perpetual Virginity of Mary”, stating she was virginal all of her life , before, during, and after the birth of Jesus Christ.
 657 - Paulicians teach a plurality of Gods, all matter is evil; rejected the Old Testament; denied the Incarnation; Christ was an angel, saved by faith in Christ alone, transmigration of souls; denied the sacraments; and refused to honor the Cross since they believed that Christ had not been crucified.
 691 - Muslim Dome of The Rock. After the Muslim conquest of Jerusalem, Umayyad Caliph Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan ordered the construction of an Islamic shrine, the Dome of the Rock, on the site of the Temple.
 788 - Worship of images, relics, and the cross in Roman Catholicism.
 900 - The first wave of Gypsies migrate from Southern India.
 962 - The Holy Roman Empire was formed. The Holy Roman Empire was a union of territories in Central Europe during the Middle Ages and the Early Modern period under a Holy Roman Emperor. The first emperor of the Holy Roman Empire was Otto I, crowned in 962. The last was Francis II, who abdicated and dissolved the Empire in 1806 during the Napoleonic Wars. In a decree following the 1512 Diet of Cologne, the name was officially changed to Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation.
 998 - Observance of Lent and Good Friday began.
 1033-1109 - Anselm. Born of a well-to-do family at Aosta, in England. Anselm was a Christian Theologian and a Classical Apologist. Influenced by Plato philosophically and Augustine theologically. In his study of the nature of God, Anselem originated Theistic philosophy which later became known as the ontological argument. Anselm also elaborated on many forms of the cosmological argument prior to presenting his ontological argument for God.
 1050 - Mass made a sacrifice of Christ in Roman Catholicism (transubstantiation). Doctrine fully established in 1215.
 1054 - The Schism. Separation of the Eastern Orthodox Church from the Roman Catholic.
 1079 - Celibacy of priesthood and nuns by Pope Gregory VII in Roman Catholicism.
 1090 - Rosary introduced in Roman Catholicism by Peter the Hermit.
 1119 - The creation of the Templars.
 1173 - Waldensians oppose purgatory, indulgences, prayers for the dead, war, capital punishment and oaths.
 1190 - Selling of indulgences began by Roman Catholic Church.
 1209 - The Albigensian Crusade. (Cathari teach Gnosticism and Doseticism, survivors flee to Austria).
 1215 - Roman Catholicism began confession of sins to human priest.
 1215 - II Latern Council, Condemned the Cathari and the Waldenses, formed the Inquisition, and defined transubstantiation under Pope Innocent III.
 1220 - Dominican order was founded.
 1224-1274 - Thomas Aquinas. Theologian, philosoper, and consumate Theistic apologist of the medieval church. Born in Italy. Famous for his teleological and cosmological arguments in Christian Theism.
 1229 - Roman Catholicism declares interpretation of Bible forbidden to laity. Bible placed on the Index of Forbidden Books by the Council of Valencia.
 1307 - The destruction of the Templars. (survivors flee to Scotland).
 1380 - John Wycliffe translated the bible into English, attacked transubstantiation, Indulgences, Auricular Confession, Extreme Unction and Holy Orders. He taught Sola Scriptura, and that the Church was composed only of the predestined. Prayer and sacraments benefited only the predestined, and sins could not harm them. No temporal or ecclesiastical superior had authority when he was in a state of mortal sin; Wycliffe's followers, called Lollards, formed Cells.
 1381 - John Wycliffe publishes Confession, denying that the "substance" of bread and wine are miraculously changed during the Eucharist. Wycliffe withdraws from the public to Lutterworth.
 1414 - Council of Constance, Condemned Hussites (John Huss taught the same as Wycliffe except he affirmed transubstantiation.)
 1415 - Council of Constance condemned Wycliffe of 267 counts of heresy demanding that John Hus recant. Huss, a follower of Wycliffe, refused and was burned at the stake with Wycliffe's books used as kindling for the fire.
 1415 - The Roman Papacy held The Council of Constance declaring John Wycliffe (on 4 May 1415) a stiff-necked heretic and under the ban of the Church. It was decreed that his books be burned and his remains be exhumed. The exhumation was carried out in 1428 when, at the command of Pope Martin V, his remains were dug up, burned, and the ashes cast into the River Swift.
 1431 - Joan of Arc, burned at the stake, accused of being a witch. Subsequent inquiries exonerated her and the pope officially canonized her as a saint in 1920.
 1438 - Purgatory proclaimed as a dogma by the Council of Florence.
 1439 - Council of Florence, Temporary reunion of East and West.
 1439 - Doctrine of Seven sacraments affirmed by Roman Catholicism.
 1473 - Copernicus born.
 1478 - The Spanish Inquisition was a tribunal established in 1478 by Catholic Monarchs Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile. It was intended to maintain Catholic orthodoxy in their kingdoms, and to replace the medieval inquisition which was under papal control. The Inquisition worked in large part to ensure the orthodoxy of recent converts, especially Jews, Muslims and others. The new body was under the direct control of the Spanish monarchy and was abolished in 1833, during the reign of Isabella II.
 1483-1546 - Martin Luther. Augustine monk. German leader of the protestant reformation. Luther quoted "I cannot and will not recant anything, for to go against concience is neither right nor safe. Here i stand, i can do no other, so help me God. Amen." In 1517 Luther nailed his 95 theses to the Wittenberg church door.
 1500 - The Tarot appears. Not used in divination until the late 18th century.
 1501 - Roman Catholic Papacy commands the burning of any books questioning church authority.
 1512 - Copernicus publishes that the earth actually revolves around the sun.
 1517 - Martin Luther posts 95 theses in protest against saleable indulgences..
 1509-1564 - John Calvin. Born in France and influenced with the writings of Augustine, Anselm, and Thomas Aquinas focusing on the sovereignty of God. The acronmym t-u-l-i-p was formulated at the Synod of Dort in 1618-1619.
T - Total Depravity
U - Unlimited Election
L - Limited Atonement
I - Irresistable Grace
P - Perserverance of the Saints.
 1520 - Roman Catholic Papacy gives Luther 60 days to recant or be excommunicated for questioning Papal infallibility and other Catholic doctrines.
 1521 - Martin Luther is excommunicated by Papal order "Decet Romanum Pontificem", at Diet of Worms. He refuses to recant his writings, and is condemned as a heretic and outlaw. Luther is kidnapped and hidden at Wartburg Castle, and begins translating the New Testament into German.
 1526 - Tyndale completes the first printing of the New Testament into English from the Greek. Smuggled copies of his New Testaments are soon circulated throughout England.
 1527 - Bishop Tunstall orders the purchase and burning of all the testaments.
 1536 - October 06, 1536, William Tyndale was arrested at Antwerp where he was strangled and burnt because of his work on translating the Bible into English.
 1540 - Jesuit order was founded.
 1545 - The Council of Trent.
 1545 - Apocryphal books added to Roman Catholic Bible.
 1545 - Roman Catholicism declares tradition as infallible.
 1548 - Theodore Beza added the concept of God predestining the fall, and double predestination to Calvinism.
 1560 - John Knox using Calvinism started the Presbyterian Church in Scotland.
 1619 - Synod of Dordt rejects Armenianism and affirms Calvinism. (Jacob Armenius was a student of Beza).
 1623-1662 - Blaise Pascal. Mathematical prodigy, physicist, and Christian Apologist. Founded the modern theory of probability, discovered the properties of the cycloid, and contributed to the advance of differential calculus. His experimentation led to the invention of the hydralic press. Father of modern computer programming languages. Pascal invented the adding machine and the calculator. "Pascal's Wager" If a man trusts in Christ as Savior, dies, and then discovers that Jesus was not the Christ then that man would have lost nothing. However if the man does not trust in Christ as Savior, dies, and then discovers that Jesus was the Christ; that man will have lost EVERYTHING! I will bet on God!
 1633 - Trial of Galileo. Roman Catholic Papacy condemned, forbade, imprisoned, and forced Galileo to recant his support of the teachings of Copernicus' heliocentrism, which taught, that the sun, rather than the earth, was the center of the universe. The Roman Papacy accused Galileo of heresy for teaching doctrines that were suupposedly opposed to the Bible.
 1703-1758 - Jonathan Edwards. Supported Calvinism. Primary leader of the Great Awakening which swept the American colonies in the mid 18th. Century (1734).
 1703-1791 - John Wesley. Founder of the Methodist church. Named so because of his "methodical" approach to the bible. Famous quote, " My ground is the bible. Yea I am a bible bigot. I follow it in all things both great and small."
 1717 - Parliament controls Britain, The Anglican Church is formed. (Birth of the Masonic Lodge).
 1738 - John Wesley begins preaching Entire Sanctification. (Later Jovinian perfection was added to the doctrine).
 1743-1805 - William Paley. British theologian and utilitarian philosopher. Paley's watchmaker theory, "If you were walking in a field and discovered a watch lying on the ground, you would not believe that the watch evolved out of the field. You would rather believe that the watch had an intelligent designer who made watches. Likewise when we look at the irreducible complexity and the fine-tuned design of our Earth and Universe, we can know it did not just evolve from nothing. Something never comes from nothing. Rather an Intelligent Designer made and fashioned the earth on which we live.
 962-1806 - The Holy Roman Empire abolished. The (second) medieval revival of the Western Roman Empire was referred to as The Holy Roman Empire which lasted from 962 AD to 1806. By the year 1250, much of its power had vanished and by 1650 the empire had lost virtually all power. Nevertheless, the Empire endured until 1806, when it was abolished by Emperor Francis II.
 1830 - Mormonism founded in The United States by Joseph smith.
 1834-1892 - Charles Haddon Spurgeon. "Tragedy is not in dying young, but in living long and never using your life for what is of eternal significance." Known as "The Prince of Preachers."
 1840's - Seventh-Day Adventism founded in the 1840's in New England
 1854 - Immaculate conception doctrine, The Virgin Mary declared without original sin by Pope Pius IX of the Roman Catholic Church.
 1864 - Syllabus of Errors, proclaimed by Pope Pius IX, and ratified by the Vatican Council; condemned freedom of religion, conscience, speech, press, and scientific discoveries which are disapproved by the Roman Church; asserted the Pope's temporal authority over all civil rulers.
 1870, July 18 - I Vatican declares Papal Infallibility.
 1859 - November 24, Charles Darwin published The Origin of Species?
 1879 - Christian Science founded in Boston.
 1880 - Spiritism and ouija boards, KKK, Mormonism, Christian Science.
 1884 - Jehovah"s Witness was founded. Originally they were called "Zion's Watch Tower and Tract Society", (originally the Zion's Watch Tower in 1879). They officially adopted the name of Jehovah's Witnesses in 1931, under Charles Taze Russell (1852-1916).
 1892 - Francis Bellamy, a Mason, wrote the Pledge of Allegiance for a celebration honoring patriotism and public schools. In a speech for that same program, Bellamy referred to public schools as the “great American institution that united the nation.
 1900 - Golden Dawn and Alistar Crowley appear.
 1906 - Pentecostal movement began.
 1930 - Public Schools condemned by Pope Pius XI.
 1939-45 - Nazi Movement. (Protocols of the Elders of Zion).
 1945 - The Nag Hammadi Library discovered in Egypt (Gnostic).
 1948 - Discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls and the birth of the state Israel.
 1950 - Assumption of the Virgin Mary doctrine, introduced by Pope Pius XII and Roman Catholicism.
 1960 - Charismatic Movement began.
 1965 - II Vatican.
 1967 - Israel takes back the Temple Mount.
 1973 - Jan. 22 - Roe v. Wade decision, to allow abortion of the unborn.
 1981, September 1 - Conversion of Brian Craig.
 1981, November 8 - Conversion of Lee Strobel.